Characterising the in-plane seismic performance of infill masonry
Masonry infills, commonly found in frame buildings throughout Europe and other parts of the world, have performed poorly in past earthquakes, with infill damage endangering lives, causing disruption and significant monetary losses. To characterize the performance of masonry infills, commonly classified as non-structural elements, an extensive set of experimental test data is collected and examined in this work in order to develop fragility functions for the in plane performance of masonry infills. The collected data stems from testing conducted in Europe, the Middle East and the United States and includes solid and hollow clay brick or concrete block infills, constructed to be in contact within either reinforced concrete or steel framing. The results indicate that infill masonry can exhibit first signs of damage at drifts as low as 0.2% but may not suffer complete failure until drifts as high as 2.0%. Furthermore, it is shown that masonry fragility changes significantly according to the type of infill masonry. Subsequently, a short discussion is provided to highlight the potential use of the infill fragility information within non-linear analysis models of masonry infill. Finally, repair cost estimates for infills in Italy are computed using costing-manuals and are compared with cost estimates obtained through consultation with a number of Italian building contractors, with examination of both the median and dispersion in repair costs. It is anticipated that the results of this work will be particularly useful for advanced performance-based earthquake engineering assessments of buildings with masonry infill, providing new information on the in-plane fragility, repair costs and nonlinear modelling of masonry infills.
New Zealand Standard (2004). “Structural Design Actions, Part 5: Earthquake Actions”. NZS 1170.5:2004, Standards New Zealand, Wellington, NZ.
New Zealand Standard (2006). “Concrete Structures Standards, Part 1: The design of concrete structures”. NZS 3101:2006,, Standards New Zealand, Wellington, NZ.
Ricci P, De LF and Verderame GM (2011). “6th April 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake, Italy: Reinforced Concrete Building Performance”. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 9(1): 285–305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-010-9204-8
Manzini CF and Morandi P (2012). “Rapporto preliminare sulle prestazioni ed i danneggiamenti agli edifici in muratura portante moderni a seguito degli eventi sismici emiliani del 2012”. http://www.eqclearinghouse.org/2012-05-20, [in Italian].
Yorulmaz M and Sozen MA (1968). “Behavior of Single-Story Reinforced Concrete Frames with Filler Walls”. Technical Report to the Department of Defense No. 337, University of Illinois, Urbana.
Angel R and Abrams D (2005). “Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Masonry Infills”. Structural Research Series No. 589, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
Colangelo F (2005). “Pseudo-Dynamic Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Frames Infilled with Non-Structural Brick Masonry”. Earthquake Engineering Structural Dynamic 2005, 34: 1219-1241. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.477
Morandi P, Hak S and Magenes G (2014). “In-plane Experimental Response of Strong Masonry Infills”. 9th International Masonry Conference 2014, Guimaraes.
Tasnimi AA and Mohebkhah A (2011). “Investigation on the Behaviour of Brick-Infilled Steel Frames with Openings: Experimental and Analytical Approaches”. Engineering Structures, Elsevier, 33: 968-980.
Calvi GM and Bolognini D (2001). “Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Frames Infilled with Masonry Panels Weakly Reinforced”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 5(2): 153-185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460109350390
Kakaletsis DJ and Karayannis CG (2008). “Influence of Masonry Strength and openings on Infilled R/C Frames under Cycling Loading”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, DOI:10.1080, 12(2): 197-221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460701299138
FEMA P-58 (2012). “Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings: Vol. 1 – Methodology”. FEMA P-58-1, Prepared by the Applied Technology Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C.
Porter KA (2003). “An Overview of PEER’s Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering Methodology”. Proceedings of Ninth International Conference on Applications of Probability and Statistics in Engineering, San Francisco, CA.
Meharbi AB and Shing PB (2003). “Seismic Analysis of Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames”. TMS Journal, September 2003.
Hak S, Morandi P, Magenes G and Sullivan TJ (2012). “Damage Control for Clay Masonry Infills in the Design of RC Frame Structures”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, DOI: 10.1080, 16(1): 35.
CEN (2004). “European Standard Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Eathquake Resistance”. EN 1998-1:2004, Comitè Européen de Normalisation, Bruxelles.
NTC (2008). “Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni, decreto 14 febbraio 2008, G.U. 4 febbraio 2008 n. 29 - S. O. n. 30”. [in Italian].
FEMA E74 (2012). “Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damages”. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Practical Guide.
FEMA 273 (1997). “NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings”. Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington DC, USA.
Porter K, Kennedy R and Bachman R (2007). ”Creating Fragility Functions for Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering”. Earthquake Spectra, 23(2): 471-489. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2720892
Lilliefors HW (1967). “On the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test for Normality with Mean and Variance Unknown”. Journal of American Statistical Association, 62(318): 399-402. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1967.10482916
Crisafulli FJ, Carr AJ and Park R (2000). “Analytical Modelling of Infilled Frame Structures - A General Review”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 33(1): 30-47.
Panagiotakos TB and Fardis MN (1994). “Proposed Nonlinear Strut Models for Infill Panels”. 1st Year Progress Report of HCM-PREC8 Project, University of Patras.
Decanini L, Mollaioli F, Mura A and Saragoni R (2004). “Seismic Performance of Masonry Infilled RC Frames”. 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, No. 165, Vancouver, 2004.
Klingner RE and Bertero VV (1978). “Earthquake Resistance of Infilled Frames”. Journal of the Structural Division, 104(6): 973-989.
Parducci A and Mezzi M (1980). “Repeated Horizontal Displacements of Infilled Frames Having Different Stiffness and Connection Systems – Experimental Analysis”. Proceedings of The Seventh World Conference on Earthquake engineering, Istanbul, Turkey.
Stylianidis KC (1998). “Cyclic Behaviour of Infilled RC Frames”. Proceedings of 8th Conference IBMaC. Dublin.
Schneider SP and Abrams DP (1998). “Lateral Strength of Steel Frames with Masonry Infills Having Large Openings”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 124: 896-904.
Sigmund V and Penava D (2012). “Experimental Study of Masonry Infilled R/C Frames with Openings”. 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, 2012.
Mosalam KM, White RN and Gergely P (1997). “Static Response of Infilled Frames Using Quasi-Static Experimentation”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 123: 1462-4169.
Guidi G, da-Porto F, Dalla-Benetta M, Verlato N and Modena C (2013). “Comportamento Sperimentale nel Piano e Fuori Piano di Tamponamenti in Muratura Armata e Rinforzata”. Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale, Padova, [in Italian].
Pujol S, Benavent-Climent A, Rodriguez ME and Smith-Pardo P (2008). “Masonry Infill Walls: an Effective Alternative for Seismic Strengthening of Low-Rise Reinforced Concrete Building Structures”. 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China.
Hashemi A and Mosalam KM (2007). “Seismic Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Including Effects of Masonry Infill Walls”. PEER Report 2007/100, University of California, Berkeley.
Colangelo F, Biondi S and Nuti C (1997). “Prove pseudo-dinamiche su telai tamponati progettati secondo le norme italiane e l’Eurocodice n° 8”. Atti, 8° Convegno Nazionale L’Ingegneria Sismica in Italia, Taormina, 2: 987-994, [in Italian].
Copyright (c) 2016 Kathy Sassun, Timothy J. Sullivan, Paolo Morandi, Donatello Cardone
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.