Potential of Building Information Modelling for seismic risk mitigation in buildings
The seismic assessment of an existing building is often required, possibly due to a change in use, changes in legislation (as recently occurred in New Zealand), for insurance purposes or to permit continued occupancy following a major earthquake. This discussion paper explores three ways in which Building Information Modelling (BIM) could assist in the assessment and mitigation of seismic risk: (i) BIM could provide valuable data on characteristics of both structural and non-structural elements within a building to permit a reliable and holistic seismic risk assessment to be undertaken; (ii) administer a self-diagnosis process utilising damage information received from structural health monitoring technologies prior to and following an earthquake, thus reducing the need for potentially dangerous and time-consuming physical post-earthquake inspections; and (iii) enabling realisation of an emergency management hub within a building management system for implementing control processes to monitor and eventually shutdown damaged mechanical services (e.g. gas pipes) following an earthquake, thus limiting the negative consequences of earthquake induced damage. By providing a leading-edge discussion of these three subjects, with reference to building damage observed in previous earthquakes, important directions for research in BIM are identified that promise to provide a more effective means of seismic risk assessment and mitigation.
ISO Standard. (2010) “Building Information Modeling – Information Delivery Manual – Part 1: Methodology and Format”. ISO 29481-1:2010(E).
Associated General Contractors of America. (2005) The Contractors Guide to BIM, 1st ed. AGC Research Foundation. Las Vegas, NV.
Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., Liston, K. (2011) BIM Handbook: A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and contractors – 2nd Edition. Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey.
Van Nederveen, G.A., Tolman, F.P. (1992) “Modelling multiple views on buildings”. Automation in Construction 1 (3): 215-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0926-5805(92)90014-B
Eastman, C., Chase, S., Assal, H. (1993) “System architecture for computer integration of design and construction knowledge”. Automation in Construction 2 (2): 95-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0926-5805(93)90003-G
Volk, R., Stengel, J., Schultmann, F. (2014) “Building Information Modeling (BIM) for existing buildings – Literature review and future needs”. Automation in Construction 38: 109–127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2013.10.023
Sacks, R., Treckmann, M., Rozenfeld, O. (2009) “Visualization of work flow to support lean construction”. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 135 (12): 1307-1315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000102
Cheung, F., Rihan J., Tah, J., Duce, D., Kurul, E. (2012) “Early stage multi-level cost estimation for schematic BIM models”. Automation in Construction 27: 67-77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2012.05.008
Campbell, A.D. (2007) “Building Information Modeling: The Web3D Application for AEC”. Proceedings of the 12th international conference on 3D web technology (Web3D ’07). New York, USA. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/1229390.1229422
BIFM. (2012) “Facilities management is key to realising BIM’s potential”. British Institute of Facilities Management. http://www.bifm.org.uk.
Bercerik-Gerber, B., Jazizadeh, F., Li, N., Calis, G. (2012) “Application areas and data requirements for BIM-enabled facilities management”. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 138 (3): 431-442. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000433
Arayici, Y. (2008) “Towards building information modelling for existing structures”. Structural Survey 26: 210-222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02630800810887108
Mill, T., Alt, A, Liias, R. (2013) “Combined 3D building surveying techniques – terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and total station surveying for BIM data management purposes”. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 19 (S1): S23-S32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3846/13923730.2013.795187
Gursel, I, Saryildiz, S., Akin, O, Stouffs, R. (2009) “Modeling and visualization of lifecycle building performance assessment”. Advanced Engineering Informatics 23: 369-417. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2009.06.010
Dong, B., O’Neill, Z., Zhengwei, L. (2014) “A BIM-enabled information infrastructure for building energy Fault Detection and Diagnostics”. Automation in Construction 44: 197-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2014.04.007
Love, P.E.D., Matthews, J., Simpson, I, et al. (2014) “A benefits realization management building information modeling framework for asset owners”. Automation in Construction 37: 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2013.09.007
Leite, F., Akinci, B. (2012) “Formalized representation for supporting automated identification of critical assets in facilities during emergencies triggered by failures in building systems”. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 26 (4): 519-529. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CP.1943-5487.0000171
Gu, N., London, K. (2010) “Understanding and facilitating BIM adoption in the AEC industry”. Automation in Construction 19: 988-999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2010.09.002
Smilow, J. (2007) “Practical BIM: How are engineers and architects implementing and using this developing technology”. In Modern Steel Construction. American Institute of Steel Construction. Chicago, U.S.A.
Azhar, S., Hein, M., Sketo, B. (2008) “Building Information Modeling (BIM): Benefits, Risks, Challenges”. Associated Schools of Construction (ASC) 44th Annual Conference. Auburn, Alabama.
Shafiq, M.T., Matthews, J., Lockley, S.R. (2013) “A study of BIM collaboration requirements and available features in existing model collaboration systems”. Journal of Information Technology in Construction 18: 148-161.
National Institute of Building Sciences, NIBS. (2014) “National BIM Standard (V2)”. NIBS building SMART alliance. http://www.nationalbimstandard.org/.
ISO Standard (2005) “ISO/PAS 16739: 2005 Industry Foundation Classes, Release 2x, Platform Specification (IF2xPlatform). International Standard.
East, W. (2012) “bSa Construction Operations Building information exchange (COBie): Means and Methods”. The National Institute of Building Sciences.
East, B. (2013) “HVAC information exchange (HVACie)”. National Institute of Building Sciences.
East, B. (2013) “bSa Building Automation Modeling information exchange (BAMie) Project”. National Institute of Building Sciences.
Bercerik-Gerber, B., Rice, S. (2010) “The perceived value of building information modeling in the U.S. building industry”. Journal of Information Technology in Construction 15: 185-201.
Gray, M., Gray, J., Teo, M., Chi, S., Cheung, F. (2013) “Building Information Modelling: An international survey”. CIB 2013 World Congress. Brisbane, Australia.
Building Cost Information Service, BCIS. (2011) “RCIS 2011 Building Information Modelling Survey Report”. Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. London, UK.
Sacks, R., Kaner, I., Eastman, C.M., Jeong, Y. (2010) “The Rosewood experiment – Building information modeling and interoperability for architectural facades”. Automation in Construction 19 (4): 419-432. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2009.11.012
Khemlani, L. (2009) “Sutter Medical Center Castro Valley: Case Study of an IPD Project”. http://www.aecbytes.com/buildingthefuture/2009/Sutter_IPDCaseStudy.html.
Goggins, J., Byrne, D., Cannon, E. (2012) “The creation of a ‘living laboratory’ for structural engineering at the National University of Ireland, Galway”. The Structural Engineer 90 (4): 12-19.
Park, S., Kim, T.H., Chin, S., Yun, H.S. (2011) “Smart space with a built-in ubiquitous sensor network (USN) – based online monitoring system at Sungkyunkwan University in Korea”. Proceedings of the CIB W78-W102 2011: International Conference. Sophia Antipolis, France.
Dawood, N.N., Igbal, N. (2010) “Building Information Modelling (BIM): A visual & whole life cycle approach”. 10th International Conference on Construction Applications in Virtual Reality (CONVR 2010). Sendai, Japan.
Young, N.W., Jones, S.A., Bernstein, H.M., Gudgel, J.E. (2009) “Smart Market Report: The Business Value of BIM: Getting Building Information Modeling to the Bottom Line”. McGraw-Hill Construction. Washington, D.C.
Rutherford, H., Cooke, M., Harris, C. (2012) “New Plans for Earthquake Strengthening”. Fairfax NZ Limited. http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/industries/8049877/New-plans-for-earthquake-strengthening.
Fajfar, P. (2000) “A nonlinear analysis method for performance-based seismic design”. Earthquake Spectra 16 (3): 573-592. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1586128
Vamvatsikos D., Cornell, C.A. (2002) “Incremental dynamic analysis”. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 31 (3): 491-514. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.141
Cornell, C.A., Jalayer, F., Hamburger, R.O., Foutch, D.A. (2002) “Probabilistic basis for 2000 SAC Federal Emergency Management Agency Steel Moment Frame Guidelines”. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE 128 (4): 526-533. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:4(526)
ASCE. (2006) “Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings”. ASCE/SEI 41-06. American Society of Civil Engineers. Reston, Virginia.
SEAOC. (1995) “Vision 2000: A Framework for Performance-Based Engineering”. Structural Engineers Association of California. Sacramento, California.
Jalayer. F., Iervolino, I., Manfredi, G. (2010) “Structural modeling uncertainties and their influence on seismic assessment of existing RC structures”. Structural Safety 32: 220-228. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2010.02.004
Whittaker. A., Hamburger, R.O., Comartin, C., Mahoney, M., Bachman, R. (2004) “Performance-Based Engineering of Buildings and Infrastructure for Extreme Loadings”. Technical paper submitted to the Applied Technology Council, ATC-58 project.
Porter, K.A. (2003) “An Overview of PEER’s Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering Methodology”. Proceedings of Ninth International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Engineering. San Francisco, California.
ATC. (2011) “Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings, Volume 1 – Methodology”. ATC-58-1. Applied Technology Council. Redwood City, California.
Porter, K., Kennedy, R., Bachman, R. (2007) “Creating Fragility Functions for Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering”. Earthquake Spectra 23 (2): 471-489. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2720892
Tian, Y., Filiatrault, A., Mosqueda, G. (2013) “Experimental Seismic Fragility of Pressurized Fire Suppression Sprinkler Piping Joints”. Earthquake Spectra (in press). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/111011EQS278M
Echevarria, A.A., Zaghi, A.E., Soroushian, S., Maragakis, E.M. (2012) “Seismic Fragility of Suspended Ceilings”. 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal.
Davies, R.D., Retamales, R., Mosqueda, G., Filiatrault, A. (2011) “Experimental Seismic Evaluation, Model Parameterization, and Effects of Cold-formed Steel-framed Gypsum Partition Walls on the Seismic Performance of an Essential Facility”. MCEER-NEES Nonstructural, Technical Report MCEER-11-0005, Buffalo, New York.
Gulec, C.K., Gibbons, B., Chen, A., Whittaker, A.S. (2011) “Damage states and fragility functions for link beams in eccentrically braced frames”. Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67: 1299-1309. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2011.03.014
Miranda, E., Mosqueda, G., Retamales, R., Pekcan, G. (2012) “Performance of Nonstructural Components during the 27 February 2010 Chile Earthquake”. Earthquake Spectra 28 (S1): S453-S471. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.4000032
Braga, F., Manfredi, V., Masi, A., Salvatori, A., Vona, M. (2011) “Performance of non-structural elements in RC buildings during the L’Aquila, 2009 earthquake”. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 9: 307-324. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-010-9205-7
Dhakal, R.P. (2010) “Damage to non-structural components and contents in 2010 Darfield Earthquake”. Bulletin of the NZSEE 43 (4): 404-411.
Filiatrault, A., Uang, C.M., Folz, B., Christopoulos, C., Gatto, K. (2001) “Reconnaissance Report of the February 28, 2001 Nisqually (Seattle-Olympia) Earthquake”. University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, Report No. SSRP-2001/02.
Reitherman, R., Sabol, T. (1995) “Nonstructural Damage”, in John Hall (ed.), Northridge Earthquake of January 17, 1994 Reconnaissance Report. Earthquake Spectra 11 (C): 453-514.
FEMA. (2011) “Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage – A Practical Guide”. FEMA E-74. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Washington, D.C.
Charleson, A. (2007) “Architectural Design for Earthquakes – A guide to the design of non-structural elements”. Published by the NZSEE. 2nd Edition.
Tasligedik, A.S., Pampanin, S., Palermo, A. (2012) “In-Plane Cyclic Testing of Non-structural Drywalls Infilled Within RC Frames.” 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal.
Dhakal, R.P., MacRae, G.A., Hogg, K. (2011) “Performance of ceilings in the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake”. Bulletin of the NZSEE 44 (4): 377-387.
EERI. (2011) “Learning from Earthquakes, The M 6.3 Christchurch New Zealand, Earthquake of February 22, 2011”. EERI Special Earthquake Report, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Oakland, CA.
Zhang, J.P., Hu, Z.Z. (2011) “BIM- and 4D-based integrated solution of analysis and management for conflicts and structural safety problems during construction: I. Principles and methodologies”. Automation in Construction 20 (2): 155-166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2010.09.013
Laganos, N.D., Mitropoulou, C.C. (2013) “The effect of uncertainties in seismic loss estimation of steel and reinforced concrete composite buildings”. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance 9 (6): 546-566. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15732479.2011.593527
Dolsek, M. (2011) “Simplified method for seismic risk assessment of buildings with consideration of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty”. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance 8 (10): 939-953.
Franchin, P., Pinto, P.E., Rajeev, P. (2010) “Confidence Factor?”. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 14 (7): 989-1007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460903527948
Hamburger, R.O., Moehle, J.P. (2000) “State of performance-based engineering in the United States”. Proceedings of the 2nd US-Japan Workshop on Performance-Based Design Methodology for Reinforced Concrete Building Structures. Sapporo, Japan.
Yu, J., Tan, Y., Eastman, C. (2011) “Case Study| Sutter Health Cathedral Hospital, Collaboration in Building Information Modeling.” Arch 6503: BIM Applications. http://www.dbl.gatech.edu/sites/www.dbl.gatech.edu/files/Yinzi-Jianqui.pdf.
Klein, L., Li, N., Becerik-Gerber, B. (2012) “Image-based verification of as-built documentation of operational buildings”. Automation in Construction 21: 161–171. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2011.05.023
Huber, D., Akinci, B., Adan, A., Anil, E., Okorn, B., Xiong, X. (2011) “Methods for automatically modeling and representing as-built building information models”. Proceedings of the NSF CMMI Research Innovation Conference, Atlanta, Georgia.
Anagnostopoulos, S., Moretti, M. (2008) “Post-earthquake emergency assessment of building damage, safety and usability – Part 2: Organisation”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 28: 233-244. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2006.05.008
ATC. (2005) “Procedures for Postearthquake Safety Evaluation of Buildings”. ATC-20. Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, California, Published 1989, Revised 2005.
NZSEE. (2009) “Building Safety Evaluation during a State of Emergency: Guidelines for Territorial Authorities. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering. August, 2009.
Comerio, M.C. (2006) “Estimating Downtime in Loss Modeling”. Earthquake Spectra 22 (2): 349-365. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2191017
Hare, J. (2013) “The State of Earthquake Engineering in New Zealand – One Engineer’s View”. NZSEE Bulletin 46 (2): 69-78.
Dondi, F. (2012) “Terremoto: il rebus delle agibilità”. (in Italian) Gazzetta di Modena, http://gazzettadimodena.gelocal.it/cronaca/2012/08/22/news/terremoto-il-rebus-delle-agibilita-1.5577260.
Fabbrocino, G., Rainieri, C. (2012) “Some remarks on the seismic safety management of existing health facilities”. Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal.
Farhidzadeh, A., Salvatore, S., Luna, B., Whittaker, A. (2013) “Acoustic emission monitoring of a reinforced concrete shear wall by b-value based outlier analysis”. Structural Health Monitoring 12 (1): 3-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1475921712461162
Benavent-Climent, A., Gallego, A., Vico, J.M. (2011) “An acoustic energy emission index for damage evaluation of reinforced concrete slabs under seismic loads”. Structural Health Monitoring 11(1):69-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1475921711401128
Benavent-Climent, A., Castro, E., Gallego, A. (2009) “AE monitoring for damage assessment of RC exterior beam column assemblages subjected to cyclic loading”. Structural Health Monitoring 8: 175-189. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1475921709102143
Carpinteri A., Lacidogna G. and Niccolini G. (2007) “Acoustic emission monitoring of medieval towers considered as sensitive earthquake receptors”. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 7: 251–261. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-7-251-2007
CSMIP. (2014) California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program. http://www.conservation.ca.gov/CGS/smip. (accessed 21/9/2014).
GNS Science. (2014) GeoNet. http://www.geonet.org.nz. (accessed 21/9/2014).
Deam, B.L., Cousins, W.J. (2002) “Strong-motion instrumentation of buildings in New Zealand”. NZSEE 2002 Conference. Paper No. 2.3.
Jie, L, Jianxue, S. (1996) “Event System Simulation of Post-Earthquake Fire”. Post-Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction (Cheng, F.Y. and Wang, Y.Y. (eds)), Henan, China. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-008042825-3/50013-2
Scawthorn, C.R. (2008) “Fire Following Earthquake”. Report prepared for the United States Geological Survey and California Geological Survey, March, 3, 2008.
Scawthorn, C., Cowell, A.D., Borden, F. (1998) “Fire-Related Aspects of the Northridge Earthquake”. Report for the U.S: Department of Commerce Building and Fire Research Laboratory NIST, NIST-GCR-98-743.
Ayres, J.M., Philips, R. (1997) “Water damage in hospital resulting from the Northridge Earthquake”. Proceedings of the NEHRP Conference and Workshop on Research on the Northridge, California, Earthquake of January 17, 1994, CUREE, Richmond, California.
Baker, G.B., Collier, P.C.R, Abu, A.K., Houston, B.J. (2012) “Post-Earthquake Structural Design for Fire – A New Zealand Perspective”. 7th International Conference on Structures in Fire. Zurich, Switzerland.
Schouter, H. (2014) “BNZ building faces quake poser”. The Dominion Post. http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/industries/9813725/BNZ-building-faces-quake-poser.
ASCE. (1999) “Earthquake Actuated Automatic Gas Shutoff Devices”. ASCE 25-97. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia.
ATC. (2007) “Collaborative recommended requirements for automatic natural gas shutoff valves in Italy”. ATC-74. Report prepared for the Department of Civil Protection, Italy by the Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, California.
Strand C.L. (2012) “Seismic Gas Shutoff Valves and Excess Flow Valves”. Chapter 6 in Seismic Resilience of Natural Gas Systems: Improving Performance (McDonough PW (ed)), American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia.
Ghazali, M.F., Staszewski, W.J., Shucksmith, J.D. et al. (2011) “Instantaneous phase and frequency for the detection of leaks and features in a pipeline system”. Structural Health Monitoring 10 (4): 351-360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1475921710373958
Li, J., Zhang, Y., Zhu, S. (2008) “A wavelet-based structural damage assessment approach with progressively downloaded sensor data”. Smart Materials and Structures 17 (1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/17/01/015020
Rainieri, C., Fabbrocino, G., Cosenza, E. (2010) “Integrated seismic early warning and structural health monitoring of critical civil infrastructures in seismically prone areas”. Structural Health Monitoring 10 (3): 291-308. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1475921710373296
Ergen, E., Akinci, B., Sacks, R. (2007) “Life-cycle data management of engineered-to-order components using radio frequency identification”. Advanced Engineering Informatics 21 (4): 356-366. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2006.09.004
Copyright (c) 2014 David P. Welch, Timothy J. Sullivan, Andre Filiatrault
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.