Performance of unreinforced and retrofitted masonry buildings during the 2010 Darfield earthquake

Abstract

A brief history of Christchurch city is presented, including information on the introduction of unreinforced masonry as a popular building material and an estimate of the number of unreinforced masonry buildings in the Canterbury region currently. A general overview of the failure patterns that were observed in unreinforced clay brick and stone masonry buildings in the Christchurch area after the 2010 Darfield earthquake is provided. Case studies of the damage sustained to five unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings that were unretrofitted at the time of the earthquake, including photographic details, is documented. The performance of eight retrofitted URM buildings is then commented on, detailing the building characteristics and retrofit techniques. The case studies include the use of moment resisting frames, steel strong backs and strapping, diaphragm anchoring, surface bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and cavity ties.

References

Rice, G.W., "Christchurch Changing, An Illustrated History". 2nd Edition. 2008, Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press.

Christchurch City Libraries. 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2010. Available from: Http://christchurchcitylibraries.com/heritage/earlychristchurch.

McBride, I., "Riccarton, The Founding Borough". 1994, Christchurch, New Zealand: Caxton Press.

Wilson, J., "Lost Christchurch". 1984, Springston, New Zealand: Te Waihora Press.

Coxhead, F.A., "Victorian Christchurch", C. 182. 1885.

Collection, B., "View south-east from the Cathedral tower", C.C. 1199. 1910.

Geonet. "Historic Earthquakes". 2010. Retrieved on 18th October 2010. Available from: http://www.geonet.org.nz/earthquake/historic-earthquakes/index.html.

Stirling, M., M. Gerstenberger, N. Litchfield, G.H. McVerry, W. Smith, P. J and P. Barnes, "Seismic hazard of the Canterbury region, New Zealand:New Earthquake source model and methedology". Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 2008. 41(2): p. 51-67.

PapersPast. "Official Report on Public Buildings, Star, Issue 6333, 3 September 1888". Star, Issue 6333, 3 September 2010. Retrieved on 20th October Available from: http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=TS18880903.2.25&cl=CL2.1888.09.03.

Bishop, F.C. and Wheeler, "Earthquake damage to the Cathedral spire in 1888 and 1901", I. File Reference CCL PhotoCD 3, Christchurch City Libraries.

Dowrick, D.J., "Damage and intensities in the magnitude 7.8 1929 Murchison, New Zealand earthquake". Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 1994. 27(3): p. 190-204.

Russell, A.P. and J.M. Ingham, "Trends in the architectural characterisation of unreinforced masonry in New Zealand", in 14IBMAC Conference. 2008: Bondi, Australia, 17-20th February, 2008.

Goodwin, C., G. Tonks and J.M. Ingham, "Identifying heritage value in URM buildings". Journal of the Structural Engineering Society of New Zealand, 2009. 22(2): p. 16-28.

Cull, J.E.L., "Report of the Building Regulations Committee". 1931, Report to the New Zealand House of Representatives, H-21.

New Zealand Parliament, "Municipal Coroporations Act, incorporating Amendment 301A", N.Z.G. The Department of Internal Affairs - Ta Tari Taiwhenua. 1968: Wellington, New Zealand, March 13-14.

Hopkins, D.C., M. Stannard, G. Lawrance and I. Brewer, "Strengthening Buildings for Earthquakes: Implementing New Zealand Legislation", in 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. 2008: Beijing, China, October 12-17.

The New Zealand Parliament, "Building Act 2004", M.o.E.D. Department of Building and Housing - Te Tari Kaupapa Whare, New Zealand Government. 2004: Wellington, New Zealand, Date of assent: 24 August 2004.

Christchurch City Council. "Review of earthquake-prone, dangerous and insanitary buildings policy". 2010. Available from: Http://www1.ccc.govt.nz/Council/agendas/2010/March/RegulatoryPlanning4th/4.Earthquake.pdf, 4 March 2010.

Russell, A.P. and J.M. Ingham, "Prevalence of New Zealand's Unreinforced Masonry Buildings". Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 2010. 43(3): p. 182-201. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.43.3.182-201

Census and Statistics Office, "The New Zealand Official Year Books", N.Z. Government. 1890-1945: Wellington, New Zealand.

NZSEE, "Assessment and Improvement of the Structural Performance of Buildings and Earthquakes - Recommendations of a NZSEE Study Group on Earthquake Risk Buildings", New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering. 2006.

Son, W.a., Art Gallery, Durham Street, CM4828. 1897.

Dowrick, D.J., "Damage and Intensities in the Magnitude 7.8 1931 Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, Earthquake". Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 1998. 30(2): p. 133-158.

Page, A.W., "The Newcastle earthquake - behaviour of masonry structures". Masonry International, Journal of the British Masonry Society, 1991. 5(1): p. 11-18.

EERI, "The Mw 8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010", J. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute Newsletter, Http://www.eeri.org/site/images/eeri_newsletter/2010_pdf/Chile10_insert.pdf. 2010.

Edwards, M., M. Griffith, M. Wehner, N. Lam, N. Corby, M. Jakab and N. Habili. "The Kalgoorlie Earthquake of the 20th April 2010:Preliminary Damage Survery Outcomes" in Proceedings of the Australian Earthquake Engineering Society Conference. 2010. Perth.

Restrepo-Valez, L.F. and G. Magenes, "Static tests on dry stone masonry and elevation of static collapse multipliers", R.R.N. ROSE-2009/02. 2009: Fondazione EUCENTRE, Pavia, 72p.

Ingham, J.M. and M.C. Griffith, "Performance of New Zealand's masonry buildings during the 2010 Darfield (Christchurch, NZ) earthquake". Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 2010. In Press.

Ingham, J. and M.C. Griffith, "Performance of unreinforced masonry buildings during the 2010 Darfield (Christchurch, NZ) earthquake". 2010, New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Inc. http://db.nzsee.org.nz:8080/en/web/lfe-darfield-2010/structural/-/blogs. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13287982.2010.11465067

Moriconi, G., M.G. Castellano and M. Collepardi, "Mortar deterioration of the masonry walls in historic buildings. A case history: Vanvitelli's Mole in Ancona". Materials and Structures, 1994. 27: p. 408-414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02473445

Collepardi, M., "Degradation and restoration of masonry walls of historical buildings". Materials and Structures, 1990. 23: p. 81-102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02472568

Arino, X. and C. Saiz-Jimenez, "Colonization and deterioration processes in Roman mortars by cyanobacteria, algae and lichens". Aerobiologia, 1996. 12: p. 9-18.

Sabbioni, C., G. Zappia, C. Riontino, M.T. Blanco-Varela, J. Aguilera, F. Puertas, K. Van Balen and E.E. Toumbakari, "Atmospheric deterioration of ancient and modern hydraulic mortars. Atmospheric Environment, 2001. 35: p. 539-548. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00310-1

Palomo, A., M.T. Blanco-Varela, S. Martinez-Ramirez, F. Puertas and C. Fortes, "Historic Mortars: Characterisation and Durability. New Tendencies for Research", in Advanced Research Centre for cultural heritage interdisciplinary projects, Fifth Framework Programme Workshop. 2002: Prague.

Mulligan, J.A., "Handbook of brick masonry construction". 1942, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Valek, J. and R. Veiga, "Characterisation of mechanical properties of historic mortars - testing of irregular samples", in Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture XI. 2005: Malta, 22-24 June 2005.

Lumantarna, R., D. Dizhur, H. Derakhshan and J. Ingham, "Strength and Stiffness of Unreinforced Masonry: Comparison between Laboratory and Field Studies", in 8th International Masonry Conference. 2010: Dresden, Germany, 4 - 7 July 2010.

Russell, A.P., "Characterisation and Seismic Assessment of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings, in Department of Civil Engineering". Doctoral dissertation, 2010, University of Auckland: Auckland.

Christchurch City Council. "Protected Buildings, Places and Objects in Christchurch City Coucil". Retrieved 25 October 2010. Available from: http://ketechristchurch.peoplesnetworknz.info/canterbury_earthquake_2010/topics/show/172-list-of-protected-buildings-places-and-objects-in-christchurch-city-council.

Rothschild, K. "KPI Rothschild Property Group Ltd." Retrieved 22 October 2010. Available from: http://www.kpirothschild.co.nz/.

Christchurch City Council, "Christchurch City Coucil Agenda-Extraordinary Meeting", Monday 4 October. 2010.

Christchurch City Council. Media Releases. 2010 Retrieved 28 October 2010. Available from: http://www.ccc.govt.nz/thecouncil/newsmedia/mediareleases/2010/201009074.aspx).

Opus International Consultants, "Urban Conservation Areas Study for the Local and Central City Commercial Areas- For the Christchurch City Council". 2005.

New Zealand Historic Places Trust. The Register. 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2010. Available from: http://www.historic.org.nz/TheRegister/RegisterSearch.aspx.

Smokehouse Restaurant. "Smokehouse". 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2010. Available from: http://www.holysmoke.co.nz/.

BBR Contech Ltd. "Project References". Retrieved 21 October 2010. Available from: http://www.contech.co.nz/.

Published
2010-12-31
How to Cite
Dizhur, D., Ismail, N., Knox, C., Lumantarna, R., & Ingham, J. M. (2010). Performance of unreinforced and retrofitted masonry buildings during the 2010 Darfield earthquake. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(4), 321-339. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.43.4.321-339
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>