General observations of effects of the 30th September 2009 Padang earthquake, Indonesia
The Mw 7.5 Padang earthquake struck at 17:16 local time on 30th September 2009 with an epicentre offshore about 60 km west-northwest of Padang, capital of West Sumatra Province. More than 1,100 people were killed, and over 2,900 injured. The earthquake caused significant damage to public buildings and offices as well as to about 140,000 houses. It affected 250,000 families through the total or partial loss of their homes and livelihoods. More than half the earthquake fatalities occurred when several villages inland from Pariaman were buried by landslides. However, the damage and destruction of building structures was a major cause behind human and property losses. In addition to landslides, the earthquake triggered extensive liquefaction and lateral spreading in the region. A ten-member team from New Zealand visited the area under the auspices of NZAid and New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering to undertake building safety evaluations. The team spent most of their time in Padang city and other nearby earthquake-affected areas. This paper presents their observations and explores causes behind the damage and destruction of buildings by the moderate to strong earthquake shaking.
Antara (2009) Number of fatalities in W Sumatra quake now 1,115, http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/1255472809/number-of-fatalities-in-w-sumatra-quake-now-1-115.
Beca (1980a) Draft Code of Practice for Seismic design of Buildings in Indonesia, A report prepared by Beca Carter Hollings & Ferner Ltd and The Indonesia Counterpart Team under the direction of The NZ Steering Committee as part of NZ Bilateral Assistance Programme to Indonesia.
Beca (1980b) Manual for the Design of Normal Reinforced Concrete and Reinforced Masonry structures, A report prepared by Beca Carter Hollings & Ferner Ltd and The Indonesia Counterpart Team under the direction of The NZ Steering Committee as part of NZ Bilateral Assistance Programme to Indonesia.
Bothara, J.K., Hiçyılmaz, K.M.O. (2008) General Observations of the Building Behaviour during the 8th October 2005 Pakistan Earthquake. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering 41 (4): 209-233.
Brunsdon, D., Bothara, J.K., Stannard, M., Beetham, D., Brown, R., Hyland, C.W.K., Lewis, W., Miller, S, Sanders, R., Sulistio, Y. (2010) Building Safety Evaluation Following the 30th September 2009 Padang Earthquake, Indonesia. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(3): 174-181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.43.3.174-181
EERI (2009) The Mw 7.6 Western Sumatra Earthquake of September 30, 2009, The Learning from Earthquakes, EERI Special Earthquake Report, http://www.eeri.org/site/images/eeri_newsletter/2009_pdf/Padang-eq-report-NL-insert.pdf
Hyland, C.W.K., Wijanto, S. (2010) Lessons for Steel Structures from the 2009 Earthquake Damage in Padang, Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(2): 134-139. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.43.2.134-139
IAEE (1986) Guidelines for Earthquake Non-engineered Construction, International Association for Earthquake Engineering, reprinted by National Information Centre of Earthquake Engineering, at IIT Kanpur, India, http://www.nicee.org/IAEE_English.php
Natawidjaja, Hilman, D., Sieh, K., Mohamed Chlieh, M., Ggaletzka, J., Bambang, Suwargadi, W., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Avouac,J.-P., Ward, S.N. (2006) Source parameters of the great Sumatran megathrust earthquakes of 1797 and 1833 inferred from coral microatolls. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, B06403, doi:10.1029/2005JB004025: 1-37.
SKBI (1987) Pedoman Perencanaan Ketahanan Gempa untuk Rumah dan Gedung (Earthquake Resistance Building and Housing Design Guide), SKBI – 18.104.22.1687, Standar Konstruksi Bangunan, Jakarta.
SNI (2002) Earthquake Resistance Design Guidelines for Buildings (unofficial translation in English), SNI 03-1726-2002, Standar Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta, 278 p.
USGS (2009) Magnitude 7.5 - Southern Sumatra, Indonesia, 2009 September 30 10:16:09 UTC, http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009mebz.php
Copyright (c) 2010 Jitendra Bothara, Dick Beetham, Dave Brunsdon, Mike Stannard, Roger Brown, Clark Hyland, Warren Lewis, Scott Miller, Rebecca Sanders, Yakso Sulistio
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.