Design ground motions near active faults
Forward-Directivity (FD) in the near-fault region can produce intense, pulse-type motions that differ significantly from ordinary ground motions that occur further from the ruptured fault. Near-fault FD motions typically govern the design of structures built close to active faults so the selection of design ground motions is critical for achieving effective performance without costly over-design. Updated empirical relationships are provided for estimating the peak ground velocity (PGV) and period of the velocity pulse (Tv) of near-fault FD motions. PGV varies significantly with magnitude, distance, and site effects. Tv is a function of magnitude and site conditions with most of the energy being concentrated within a narrow-period band centred on the pulse period. Lower magnitude events, which produce lower pulse periods, might produce more damaging ground motions for the stiff structures more common in urban areas. As the number of near-fault recordings is still limited, fully nonlinear bi-directional shaking simulations are employed to gain additional insight. It is shown that site effects generally cause Tv to increase. Although the amplification of PGV at soil sites depends on site properties, amplification is generally observed even for very intense rock motions. At soft soil sites, seismic site response can be limited by the yield strength of the soil, but then seismic instability may be a concern.
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