The estimated PGA map of the Mw6.4 2006 Yogyakarta Indonesia earthquake, constructed from the Modified Mercalli intensity IMM

  • Widodo Pawirodikromo Islamic University of Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract

Many moderate and strong earthquakes have occurred in Indonesia. However, since ground motion records are unavailable, a concise earthquake peak ground acceleration (PGA) map has never before been constructed. Several efforts have been made to construct PGA maps after the Mw6.4 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, i.e. earthquake PGA maps by researchers [1–4]. However, due to their use of completely different earthquake sources, methods of analysis and by using exclusion criteria of ground motion prediction equations (GMPE), the maps differed greatly and did not match the actual structural damage found in the field. Estimation of a 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake PGA map became possible after field surveying of the Imm conducted by Wijaya [5]. The estimated PGA map was constructed based on the isoseimic lines, intensity prediction equation (IPE) by Wijaya [5] and peak ground acceleration at YOGI and BJI station control points, as published by Elnashai et al [6]. A set of most recent GMPEs were chosen, as they closely predicted the PGA at two control points. An Extrapolation Method was developed in which the PGA between YOGI and BJI stations would be extrapolated to all data points in the field to yield the 2006 Yogyakarta seismic PGA map. Result of the investigation indicated that the pattern of the new PGA map does not form a circle with radius R, but occurs longitudinally following the direction of the Opak River fault trace and closely follows the pattern of Imm map and damage to buildings in the field. It was found that the maximum upperbound PGA reached ±0.50-0.51g and it did not occur at the epicenter area but instead took place in relatively deep soil deposit approximately ±2 km west of the Opak River fault.

References

Thant M, Pramumijoyo S, Hendrayana H, Kawase H and Adi D (2010). “Evaluation of Strong Ground Motion for Yogyakarta Depression Area”. Journal of Applied Geology, 2(2): 81–94.

Daryono (2011). “Indeks Kerentanan Seismik Berdasarkan Mikrotremor Pada Setiap Satuan Bentuk Lahan di Zona Graben Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta”. Doctorate Dissertation, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (in Bahasa).

Khalfan M (2013). “Fragility Curves for Residential Buildings in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Non-Engineered Unreinforced Masonry Homes in Bantul, Indonesia”. Master Thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 137p.

Hartantyo E, Brotopuspito KS, Sismanto and Waluyo (2015). “Predicting the liquefaction phenomena from shear velocity profiling: Empirical approach to 6.3Mw, May 2006 Yogyakarta Earthquake”. Proceedings of the AIP Conference, 1658: 03–17.

Wijaya HH (2009). “Isoseismal, Kerentanan dan Rasio Kerusakan Bangunan Rumah Tinggal; Studi Kasus Gempa Bumi Yogyakarta 27 Mei 2006”. Master Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic University of Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (in Bahasa).

Elnashai AS, Kim JS, Yun JG and Sidarta D (2006). “The Yogyakarta Earthquake of May 27, 2006”. MAE Report No. 07-2, Mid-America Earthquake Centre, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA, 57p.

Chung JK (2013). “Peak ground motion predictions with empirical site factors using Taiwan Strong Motion Network recordings”. Earth, Planets and Space, 65(9): 957–972.

Walter TR et al. (2008). “The 26 May 2006 magnitude 6.4 Yogyakarta earthquake south of Mt. Merapi volcano: Did lahar deposits amplify ground shaking and thus lead to the disaster?”. Geochemistry, Geophysics and Geosystems, 9(5).

Vipin KS, Anbazhagan P and Sitharam TG (2009). “Estimation of peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration for South India with local site effects: probabilistic approach”. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9(3): 865–878.

Dowrick DJ and Rhoades DA (2011). “Spatial distribution of ground shaking in characteristic earthquakes on the Wellington and Alpine faults, New Zealand, estimated from a distributed-source model”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 44(1): 1–18.

Cotton F, Scherbaum F, Bommer JJ and Bungum H (2006). “Criteria for selecting and adjusting ground-motion models for specific target regions: Application to central Europe and rock sites”. Journal of Seismology, 10(2): 137–156.

Bommer JJ, Douglas J, Scherbaum F, Cotton F, Bungum H and Fah D (2010). “On the Selection of Ground-Motion Prediction Equations for Seismic Hazard Analysis”. Seismological Research Letters, 81(5): 783–793.

Douglas J, Faccioli E, Cotton F and Cauzzi C (2009). “Selection of Ground-Motion Prediction Equations for GEM1”. Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Technical Report E-1, GEM Foundation, Pavia, Italy, 37p.

Stewart JP et al. (2015). “Selection of ground motion prediction equations for the global earthquake model”. Earthquake Spectra, 31(1): 19–45.

Widodo P, Wijaya HH and Sunarto (2011). “Intensity, attenuation and building damage from the 27th May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake”. Disaster Management and Human Health Risk II, 119(May): 55–66.

Bradley B (2014). “A summary of strong ground motions observed in the Canterbury earthquake sequence”. in Selected Papers from the New Zealand: Japan Workshop on Soil Liquefaction during Recent Large-Scale Earthquakes, pp. 3–12.

Bradley BA (2012). “Ground Motion and Seismicity Aspects of the 4 September 2010 Darfield and 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquakes”. University of Canterbury Research Report, Christchurch, NZ.

Kyaw ZL, Pramumijoyo S, Husein S, Fathani TF, Kiyono J and Putra RR (2014). “Estimation of Subsurface Soil Layers using H/V Spectrum of Densely Measured Microtremor Observations (Case Study: Yogyakarta City, Central Java- Indonesia)”. International Journal of Sustainable Future for Human Security, 2(1): 13–20.

Nurwihastuti DW, Sartohadi J, Mardiatno D, Nehren U and Restu (2014). “Understanding of Earthquake Damage Pattern through Geomorphological Approach: A Case Study of 2006 Earthquake in Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia”. World Journal of Engineering Technology, 2(3): 61–70.

Bradley BA and Cubrinovski M (2011). “Near-source Strong Ground Motions Observed in the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake”. Seismological Research Letters, 82(6): 853–865.

Ince GÇ (2011). “The relationship between the performance of soil conditions and damage following an earthquake: a case study in Istanbul, Turkey”. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 11(6): 1745–1758.

Yang J and Yan XR (2009). “Factors affecting site response to multi-directional earthquake loading”. Engineering Geology, 107(3–4): 77–87.

Theilen-Willige B (2010). “Detection of local site conditions influencing earthquake shaking and secondary effects in Southwest-Haiti using remote sensing and GIS-methods”. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10(6): 1183–1196.

Muzli M et al. (2012). “Mapping of Vs30 Using Masw Method for Yogyakarta Region”. Journal of Meteorology and Geophysics, 17(1): 25–32.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional (2012). “Tata Cara Perencanaan Ketahanan Gempa Untuk Struktur Bangunan Gedung dan Non Gedung”. Sni 17262012, 149p (in Bahasa).

Sarah D and Soebowo E (2013). “Liquefaction due to the 2006 Yogyakarta Earthquake: Field Occurrence and Geotechnical Analysis”. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 6: 383–389.

Herina SF (2013). “Steady state line dan steady state paremeter sebagai penentu perilaku dan potensi likuifaksi tanah Volkanik Yogyakarta”. Doctorate Dissertation, Parahyangan Catholic University, Bangdung, Indonesia (in Bahasa).

Tsuji T et al. (2005). “Earthquake fault of the 26 May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake observed by SAR interferometry”. Earth, Planets and Space, 61(7): e29–e32.

Bommer JJ and Scherbaum F (2005). “Capturing and limiting ground motion uncertainty in seismic hazard assessment,” Directions in Strong Motion Instrumentation, 58: 25–40.

Atkinson GM (2011). “An empirical perspective on uncertainty in earthquake ground motion prediction”. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 38(9): 1002–1015.

Strasser F, Bommer J and Abrahamson N (2008). “Estimating Ground-Motion Variability: Issues, Insights & Challenges”. 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China.

Foulser-Piggott R (2014). “Quantifying the epistemic uncertainty in ground motion models and prediction”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 65: 256–268.

Akkar S, Sandıkkaya MA and Bommer JJ (2014). “Empirical ground-motion models for point- and extended-source crustal earthquake scenarios in Europe and the Middle East”. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 12(1): 359–387.

Sokolov V, Wenzel F, Jean WY and Wen KL (2010). “Uncertainty and spatial correlation of earthquake ground motion in Taiwan”. Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 21(6): 905–921.

Nguyen LM et al. (2011). “The first ML scale for North of Vietnam”. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 40(1): 279–286.

Power M, Chiou B, Abrahamson N, Bozorgnia Y, Shantz T and Roblee C (2008). “An Overview of the NGA Project”. Earthquake Spectra, 24(1): 3–21.

Campbell KW and Bozorgnia Y (2007). “NGA Ground Motion Relations for the Geometric Mean Horizontal Component of Peak and Spectral Ground Motion Parameters”. 265p.

Douglas J (2017). “Ground Motion Prediction Equations 1964-2017”. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK, 575p.

Sandikkaya MA, Akkar S and Bard PY (2013). “A nonlinear site-amplification model for the next pan-European ground-motion prediction equations”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 103(1): 19–32.

Dowrick D, Hancox G, Perrin N and Dellow G (2008). “The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale–Revisions arising from New Zealand experience”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 41(3): 193–205.

Naing T, Pramumijoyo S and Kawase H (2009). “Estimation of S-Wave Velocity Structures in Yogyakarta Basin”. Journal of Applies Geology, 1(2): 60–77.

Miura H, Midorikawa S and Kerle N (2010). “Building Damage Distribution of the 2006 Central Java, Indonesia, Earthquake Detected from Satellite Optical Images”. 8th International Workshop on Remote Sensing for Disaster Management, 9p.

The Consultative Group on Indonesia (2006). “Preliminary Damage and Loss Assessment Yogyakarta and Central Java Natural Disaster”. Joint Report Bappenas-Local Government of D.I. Yogyakarta and Local Government of Central Java, 123p (in Bahasa).

Assimaki D, Ledezma C, Montalva GA, Tassara A, Mylonakis G and Boroschek R (2012). “Site effects and damage patterns”. Earthquake Spectra, 28(1): 55–74.

Villalobos F and Mendoza M (2011). “Damages observed in the 2010 Concepción earthquake related to soil phenomena”. 5th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Santiago, Chile.

Myo Y, Htwe M and Wenbin S (2009). “Probability of Estimating a Large Earthquake Occurrence in Yangon and its Surrounding Areas Using Historical Earthquake Data”. Journal of American Sciences, 5(4): 7–12.

Published
2018-06-30
How to Cite
Pawirodikromo, W. (2018). The estimated PGA map of the Mw6.4 2006 Yogyakarta Indonesia earthquake, constructed from the Modified Mercalli intensity IMM. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 51(2), 92-104. https://doi.org/10.5459/bnzsee.51.2.92-104
Section
Articles