Assessment of ultimate drift capacity of RC shear walls by key design parameters
The latest version of the Standard for Structural Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Structures, published by the Architectural Institute of Japan in 2010 , allows the design of shear walls with rectangular cross sections in addition to shear walls with boundary columns at the end regions (referred to here as “barbell shape”). In recent earthquakes, several reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls were damaged by flexural failures through concrete compression crushing accompanied with buckling of longitudinal reinforcement in the boundary areas. Damage levels have clearly been shown to be related to drift in structures; this is why drift limits are in place for structural design criteria. A crucial step in designing a structure to accommodate these drift limits is to model the ultimate drift capacity. Thus, in order to reduce damage from this failure mode, the ultimate drift capacity of RC shear walls needs to be estimated accurately. In this paper, a parametric study of the seismic behaviour of RC shear walls was conducted using a fibre-based model to investigate the influence of basic design parameters including concrete strength, volumetric ratio of transverse reinforcement in the confined area, axial load ratio and boundary column dimensions. This study focused on ultimate drift capacity for both shear walls with rectangular sections and shear walls with boundary columns. The fibre-based model was calibrated with experimental results of twenty eight tests on shear walls with confinement in the boundary regions. It was found that ultimate drift capacity is most sensitive to axial load ratio; increase of axial load deteriorated ultimate drift capacity dramatically. Two other secondary factors were: increased concrete strength slightly reduced ultimate drift capacity while increased shear reinforcement ratio and boundary column width improved ultimate drift capacity.
AIJ (2010). "Standard for Structural Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Structures". Architectural Institute of Japan, Tokyo.
AIJ (1999). "Standard for Structural Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Structures". Architectural Institute of Japan, Tokyo.
Kato H, Tajiri S and Mukai T (2010). “Preliminary Reconnaissance Report of the Chile Earthquake 2010". Building Research Institute (BRI), http://www.kenken.go.jp/english/pdf/progress-report-of-chile-eathquake.pdf. (Accessed 01/05/2017)
Telleen K, Maffei J, Heintz J and Dragovich J (2012). "Practical lessons for concrete wall design, based on studies of the 2010 Chile earthquake". Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 24-28 September, Lisbon, Portugal.
Nishiyama M, Tani M, Idosako Y, Raouffard MM, Bedrinanna LA and Matsuba Y (2016). “A Preliminary Report about Structural Damages to RC/PC Buildings in Kumamoto Earthquake”. Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
Zhang Y and Wang Z (2000). "Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls subjected to high axial loading". ACI Structural Journal, 97(5): 739-750.
Su RKL and Wong SM (2007). “Seismic behavior of slender reinforced concrete shear walls under high axial load Ratio”. Engineering Structures, 29(8): 1957-1965.
AIR Worldwide (2010). Chile Earthquake. http://alert.air-worldwide.com/EventSummary.aspx?e=502&tp=65&c=1. (Accessed 27/03/2017).
Kono S, Tani M, Mukai T, Fukuyama H, Taleb R and Sakashita M (2014). “Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete walls for a performance based design.” Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (2ECEES), August, Istanbul, Turkey.
Paulay T and Priestley MJN (1992). “Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings”. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.
Scott BD, Park R and Priestley MJN (1982). “Stress-strian behavior of concrete confined by overlapping hoops at low and high strain rates”. ACI Journal, 79(1): 13-27.
Karan ID and Jirsa JO (1969). “Behavior of concrete under compressive loadings”. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 95(12): 2543-2563.
Menegotto M and Pinto E (1973). "Method of analysis for cyclically loaded reinforced concrete plane frames including changes in geometry and non-elastic behavior of elements under combined normal force and bending". Proceedings of IABSE Symposium on Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well-Defined Repeated Loads, Lisbon, Portugal.
Filippou FC, Popov EG and Bertero VV (1983). "Effects of Bond Deterioration on Hysteretic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Joints”. EERC Report No. UCB/EERC-83/19, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
Kolozvari K, Orakcal K and Wallace JW (2015). "Shear-Flexure Interaction Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls and Columns under Reversed Cyclic Loading". PEER Report No. 2015/12, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
Beyer K, Dazio A and Priestley MJN (2011). “Shear deformations of slender reinforced concrete walls under seismic loading”. ACI Structural Journal, 108(2): 167-177.
Mander JB, Priestley MJN and Park R (1988). “Observed stress-strain behavior of confined concrete”. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 114(8): 1827-1849.
Kono S, Obara T, Taleb R, Watanabe H, Tani M and Sakashita M (2015). “Simulation of drift capacity for RC walls with different section configurations”. Proceedings of the 10th Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering (10PCEE), 6-8 November, Sydney, Australia, pp.181-188.
ACI Committee 318 (1999). "Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-99) and Commentary (318R-99)". American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA.
Taleb R, Tani M and Kono S (2016). “Performance of confined boundary regions of RC walls under cyclic reversal loadings”. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 14: 108-124.
Thomsen JHIV and Wallace JW (2004). “Displacement-based design of slender reinforced concrete structural walls—experimental verification”. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 130(4): 618-630.
Kowalski MJ (2001). “RC structural walls designed according to UBC and displacement-based methods”. ASCE Structural Journal, 127(5): 506-516.
Wallace JW and Moehle JP (1992). “Ductility and Detailing Requirements of Bearing Wall Buildings”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 118(6): 1625–1644.
Kabeyasawa T, Kim Y, Sato M, Hyunseong H and Hosokawa Y (2011). “Tests and analysis on flexural deformability of reinforced concrete columns with wing walls”. Proceedings of the 9th Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand, Paper ID 102.
Takahashi S, Yoshida K, Ichinose T, Sanada Y, Matsumoto K, Fukuyama H and Suwada H (2013). “Flexural Drift Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Wall with Limited Confinement”. ACI Structural Journal, 110(1): 95-104.
Priestley MJN, Seible F and Calvi GM (1996). “Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges”. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, USA.
Panagiorakos TB and Fardis MN (2001). “Deformations of reinforced concrete members at yielding and ultimate”. ACI Structural Journal, 98(2): 135-148.
Bohl A and Adebar P (2011). “Plastic hinge lengths in high-rise concrete shear walls”. ACI Structural Journal, 108(2): 148-157.
Oh YH, Han SW and Lee LH (2002). “Effect of boundary element details on the seismic deformation capacity of structural walls”. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 31:1583-1602.
Tabata T, Nishihara H and Suzuki H (2003). “Bending moment curvature of extended RC shear walls”. Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute, 25(2): 625-630.
Kimura H and Ishikawa Y (2006). “Structural characteristic of RC rectangular cross section shear walls”. Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute, 28(2): 469-474.
Hosoya H (2007). “Study on structural performance of RC rectangular section core walls”. Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute, 29(3): 313-318.
Kishimoto T, Hosoya H and Oka Y (2008). “Study on structural performance of RC rectangular section core walls”. Summaries of technical papers of annual meeting, Architectural Institute of Japan, 355-358.
Deng M, Liang X and Yang K (2008). “Experimental study on seismic behaviour of high performance concrete shear wall with new strategy of transverse confining stirrups”. Proceeding of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (14WCEE), October, Beijing, China.
Dazio A, Beyer K and Bachmann H (2009). “Quasi-Static cyclic tests and plastic hinge analysis of RC structural walls”. Engineering Structures, 31:1556-1571.
Murakami H, Tomatsuri H, Morimoto T, Hiwatashi T, Nakaoka A and Hirashi H (2009). “Experimental study on structural performance of RC multi-story shear wall”. Proceeding of Architectural Institute of Japan Annual Convention, August, Japan.
Zhang H, Lu X and Wu X (2010). “Experimental study and numerical simulation of the reinforced concrete walls with different stirrup in boundary element”. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 9(2): 447-454.
Tran TA and Wallace JW (2012). “Experimental study of nonlinear flexural and shear deformation of reinforced concrete structural walls”. Proceeding of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (15WCEE), September, Lisbon, Portugal.
Kabeyasawa T, Kato S, Sato M, Kabeyasawa T, Fukuyama H, Tani M, Kim Y and Hosokawa Y (2014). “Effects of bi-directional lateral loading on the strength and deformability of reinforced concrete walls with/without boundary columns”. Proceedings of the 10th U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (10NCEE), July, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
ACI Committee 318 (2014). "Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-14) and Commentary (318RM-14)". American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA.
Copyright (c) 2017 Chanipa Netrattana, Rafik Taleb, Hidekazu Watanabe, Susumu Kono, David Mukai, Masanori Tani, Masanobu Sakashita
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.