Tests on slender ductile structural walls designed according to New Zealand Standard
This paper presents an experimental study conducted to investigate the seismic performance and out-of-plane response of three rectangular doubly reinforced ductile wall specimens subjected to an in-plane cyclic quasi-static loading. The specimens were half-scale, representing the first story of four story prototype walls designed according to NZS3101:2006. The experimental program including details of the specimens, material properties, test setup, loading protocol and instrumentation is described. Also, the test observations, with focus on the significant stages of wall response as well as the failure patterns of the specimens, are reported considering the correlation between seismic damage and lateral drift. Two of the specimens failed at 2% drift, and their failure modes comprised of bar fracture, bar buckling, concrete crushing and out-of-plane instability. The failure pattern of the third specimen was pure out-of-plane instability which proved to have the potential to cause sudden collapse of slender ductile walls that are designed to resist other failure modes. In light of the test results, the efficacy of wall design provisions in the New Zealand concrete design standard (NZS3101) associated with the observed failure modes is scrutinised.
Kam WY, Pampanin S and Elwood K (2011). “Seismic performance of reinforced concrete buildings in the 22 February Christchurch (Lyttelton) earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 44(4): 239-278.
Sritharan S, Beyer K, Henry RS, Chai Y, Kowalsky M and Bull D (2014). “Understanding poor seismic performance of concrete walls and design implications”. Earthquake Spectra, 30(1): 307-334.
Lu Y, Henry R S, Gultom R and Ma QT (2017). “Cyclic Testing of Reinforced Concrete Walls with Distributed Minimum Vertical Reinforcement”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 143(5). DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001723.
Standards New Zealand (2006). “Concrete Structures Standard, NZS 3101:2006 Parts 1&2”. Standards New Zealand, Wellington.
Shegay A, Motter C, Henry RS and Elwood K (2016). “Large scale testing of reinforced concrete walls with high axial loads”. New Zealand Concrete Industry Conference, Auckland, New Zealand.
Oesterle R (1976). “Earthquake Resistant Structural Walls: Tests of Isolated Walls”. Research and Development Construction Technology Laboratories, Portland Cement Association, USA.
Paulay T and Goodsir W (1985). “The ductility of structural walls”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 18(3): 250-269.
Johnson B (2010). “Anchorage Detailing Effects on Lateral Deformation Components of R/C Shear Walls”. Master’s Thesis, University of Minnesota, USA.
Birely AC (2013). “Seismic Performance of Slender Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls”. PhD Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
Goodsir WJ (1985). “The Design of Coupled Frame-Wall Structures for Seismic Actions”. PhD Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Chai YH and Elayer DT (1999). “Lateral stability of reinforced concrete columns under axial reversed cyclic tension and compression”. ACI Structural Journal, 96(5): 780-789.
Creagh A, Acevedo C, Moehle J, Hassan W and Tanyeri AC (2010). “Seismic Performance of Concrete Special Boundary Element”. University of Texas Austin and University of California Berkley, USA.
Chrysanidis T and Tegos I (2012). “The influence of tension strain of wall ends to their resistance against lateral instability for low-reinforced concrete walls”. Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (15WCEE), Lisbon, Portugal.
Shea M, Wallace JW and Segura C (2013). “Seismic Performance of Thin Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Boundaries”. University of Massachusetts Amherst and University of California Los Angeles, USA.
Almeida J, Prodan O, Rosso A and Beyer K (2017). “Tests on Thin Reinforced Concrete Walls Subjected to In-plane and Out-of-plane Cyclic Loading”. Earthquake Spectra, 33(1): 323-345.
Dashti F (2017). “Out-of-plane Instability of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Walls Under In-plane Loading”. PhD Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ.
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2017). “Numerical Modelling of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 143(6): DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001729.
Standards New Zealand (2004). “NZS1170.5 Structural Design Actions, Part 5: Earthquake Actions”. Standards New Zealand, Wellington.
Paulay T and Priestley M (1993). “Stability of ductile structural walls”. ACI Structural Journal, 90(4): 385-392.
Dashti F, Dhakal RP and Pampanin S (2017). “Validation of a numerical model for prediction of out-of-plane instability in ductile structural walls under concentric in-plane cyclic loading”. Journal of Structural Engineering, DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0002013 (In Press).
Vallenas JM, Bertero VV and Popov EP (1979). “Hysteretic Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls”. Earthquake Engineering Research Centre Report UCB/EERC-79/20, Berkeley, USA.
Hilson C, Segura C and Wallace J (2014). “Experimental study of longitudinal reinforcement buckling in reinforced concrete structural wall boundary elements”. Tenth US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (10NCEE), Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
Dhakal RP and Maekawa K (2002). “Reinforcement stability and fracture of cover concrete in reinforced concrete members”. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 128(10): 1253-1262.
Parra P and Moehle J (2014). “Lateral buckling in reinforced concrete walls”. Tenth US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (10NCEE), Alaska, USA.
Copyright (c) 2017 Farhad Dashti, Rajesh P. Dhakal, Stefano Pampanin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.