Response of instrumented buildings under the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake
Six buildings in the Wellington region and the upper South Island, instrumented as part of the GeoNet Building Instrumentation Programme, recorded strong motion data during the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake. The response of two of these buildings: the Bank of New Zealand (BNZ) Harbour Quays, and Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment (MBIE) buildings, are examined in detail. Their acceleration and displacement response was reconstructed from the recorded data, and their vibrational characteristics were examined by computing their frequency response functions. The location of the BNZ building in the CentrePort region on the Wellington waterfront, which experienced significant ground motion amplification in the 1–2 s period range due to site effects, resulted in the imposition of especially large demands on the building. The computed response of the two buildings are compared to the intensity of ground motions they experienced and the structural and nonstructural damage they suffered, in an effort to motivate the use of structural response data in the validation of performance objectives of building codes, structural modelling techniques, and fragility functions. Finally, the nature of challenges typically encountered in the interpretation of structural response data are highlighted.
Cousins WJ (1993). “Highlights of 30 years of strong-motion recording in New Zealand”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 26(4): 375–389.
Deam BL and Cousins WJ (2002). “Strong-motion instrumentation of buildings in New Zealand”. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference, Napier, New Zealand.
Uma SR, King A, Cousins WJ and Gledhill K (2011). “The GeoNet building instrumentation programme”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 44(1): 53–63.
Zhao JX and Uma SR (2011). “A preliminary analysis on the response of an instrumented building during the 2010 Darfield earthquake - significant effects of soil-structure interaction and nonlinear response”. 9th Pacific Conference on Earthquake engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
McHattie SA (2013). Seismic response of the UC Physics building in the Canterbury earthquakes. Master’s thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Butt F and Omenzetter P (2014). “Seismic response trends evaluation and finite element model calibration of an instrumented RC building considering soil-structure interaction and non-structural components”. Engineering Structures, 65: 111–123, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.01.045.
Ma Q, Beskhyroun S, Simkin G, Wotherspoon LM, Ingham J, Cole G, Gebreyohaness A and Sharpe R (2014). “Experimental evaluation of inter-storey drifts during the Cook Strait earthquake sequence”. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand.
Thomson EM and Bradley BA (2014). “Preliminary analysis of instrumented Wellington building responses in the July/August 2013 Seddon/Lake Grassmere earthquakes”. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand.
Simkin G, Beskhyroun S, Ma Q, Wotherspoon LM and Ingham J (2015). “Measured response of instrumented buildings during the 2013 Cook Strait Earthquake Sequence”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 48(4).
Bradley BA, Wotherspoon LM and Kaiser AE (2017). “Ground motion and site effect observations in theWellington region from the 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 94–105.
New Zealand Standard (2004). Structural Design Actions Part 5: Earthquake Actions – New Zealand. Tech. Rep. NZS 1170.5, Standards New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.
Skolnik DA and Wallace JW (2010). “Critical Assessment of Interstory Drift Measurements”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 136(12): 1574–1584, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE) ST.1943-541X.0000255.
de la Llera JC and Chopra AK (1995). “Evaluation of seismic code provisions using strong-motion building records from the 1994 Northridge earthquake”. SMIP95 Seminar on Seismological and Engineering Implications of Recent Strong-Motion Data, San Francisco, CA.
Trifunac MD and Todorovska MI (2001). “Recording and interpreting earthquake response of fullscale structures”. M Erdik, M Çelebi, V Mihailov and N Apaydin (eds.) Strong Motion Instrumentation for Civil Engineering Structures, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, Netherlands, ISBN 978-0-7923-6917-2, pp. 131–155, DOI: 10.1007/978-94-010-0696-5_9.
Ivanovi´c S, Trifunac M, Novikova E, Gladkov A and Todorovska M (2000). “Ambient vibration tests of a sevenstory reinforced concrete building in Van Nuys, California, damaged by the 1994 Northridge earthquake”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 19(6): 391–411, DOI: 10.1016/S0267-7261(00)00025-7.
Farrar CR and Worden K (2007). “An introduction to structural health monitoring”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 365(1851): 303–315, DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2006.1928.
Worden K, Farrar CR, Manson G and Park G (2007). “The fundamental axioms of structural health monitoring”. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 463(2082): 1639–1664, DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2007.1834.
Farrar CR and Worden K (2013). Structural Health Monitoring: A Machine Learning Perspective. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, ISBN 978-1-119-99433-6, 631 pp.
Beskhyroun S, Ma Q and Wotherspoon LM (2017). “Development of a monitoring system for damage assessment of buildings after earthquakes”. 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, Chile.
Li YR and Jirsa JO (1998). “Nonlinear Analyses of an Instrumented Structure Damaged in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake”. Earthquake Spectra, 14(2): 265–283, DOI: 10.1193/1.1585999.
Kunnath SK, Nghiem Q and El-Tawil S (2004). “Modeling and Response Prediction in Performance-Based Seismic Evaluation: Case Studies of Instrumented Steel Moment-Frame Buildings”. Earthquake Spectra, 20(3): 883–915, DOI: 10.1193/1.1774181.
Brownjohn JMW and Xia PQ (2000). “Dynamic Assessment of Curved Cable-Stayed Bridge by Model Updating”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 126(2): 252–260, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2000)126:2(252).
Skolnik DA, Lei Y, Yu E and Wallace JW (2006). “Identification, Model Updating, and Response Prediction of an Instrumented 15-Story Steel-Frame Building”. Earthquake Spectra, 22(3): 781–802, DOI: 10.1193/1.2219487.
Michel C, Guéguen P, El Arem S, Mazars J and Kotronis P (2009). “Full-scale dynamic response of an RC building under weak seismic motions using earthquake recordings, ambient vibrations and modelling”. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 39(4): 419–441, DOI: 10.1002/eqe. 948.
Hori M, Ichimura T, Wijerathne L, Ohtani H, Chen J and Fujita K (2017). “Integrated Earthquake Simulation for Hazard and Disaster Assessment of Urban Area Using High Performance Computing”. 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, Chile.
USGS (2016). “M 7.8 - 54km NNE of Amberley, New Zealand”. URL:https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us1000778i, Accessed 2017-03-02.
Kaiser AE, Balfour N, Fry B, Holden C, Litchfield NJ, Gerstenberger M, D’Anastasio E, Horspool N, McVerry G, Ristau J, Bannister S, Christophersen A, Clark K, Power W, Rhoades DA, Massey C, Hamling I, Wallace L, Mountjoy JJ, Kaneko Y, Benites R, Van Houtte C, Dellow S, Wotherspoon LM, Elwood KJ and Gledhill K (2017). “The 2016 Kaik¯oura, New Zealand, Earthquake: Preliminary Seismological Report”. Seismological Research Letters, 88(3): 727–739, DOI: 10.1785/0220170018.
Bradley BA, Razafindrakoto HNT and Polak V (2017). “Ground motion observations from the 14 November 2016 Mw7.8 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake and insights from broadband simulations”. Seismological Research Letters, 88(3), DOI: 10.1785/0220160225.
Stirling M, Litchfield NJ, Villamor P, Van Dissen RJ, Nicol A, Pettinga JR, Barnes PM, Langridge R, Little T, Barrell DJA, Mountjoy JJ, Ries WF, Rowland J, Fenton C, Hamling IJ, Asher C, Barrier A, Benson A, Bischoff A, Borella J, Carne R, Cochran UA, Cockroft M, Cox SC, Duke G, Fenton F, Gasston C, Grimshaw C, Hale D, Hall B, Hao KX, Hatem A, Hemphill-Haley M, Heron DW, Howarth J, Juniper Z, Kane T, Kearse J, Khajavi N, Lamarche G, Lawson S, Lukovic B, Madugo C, Manousakis I, McColl S, Noble D, Pedley K, Sauer K, Stah T, Strong DT, Townsend DB, Toy V, Villeneuve M, Wandres A, Williams J, Woelz S and Zinke R (2017). “The Mw7.8 2016 Kaik¯oura earthquake: Surface fault rupture and seismic hazard context”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2):73–84.
Murashev A and Palmer S (1998). “Geotechnical issues associated with development on Wellington’s waterfront”. Transactions of the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand: Civil Engineering, 25(1): 38–46.
Trifunac MD and Brady AG (1975). “A study on the duration of strong earthquake ground motion”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 65(3): 581–626.
Henry RS, Dizhur D, Elwood KJ, Hare J and Brundson D (2017). “Damage to concrete buildings with precast floors during the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 174–186.
GeoNet (2017). “GeoNet Structural Array Data – Instrumentation and Locations”. URL: http://info.geonet.org.nz/display/appdata/Instrumentation+and+Locations, Accessed 2017-03-02.
Semmens S, Perrin ND, Dellow G and Van Dissen RJ (2011). “Site subsoil classification of Wellington City”. 9th Pacific Conference on Earthquake engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
Boon D, Perrin ND, Dellow GD, Van Dissen RJ and Lukovic B (2011). “NZS1170.5:2004 Site Subsoil Classification of Lower Hutt”. 9th Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
Perrin ND, Heron DW, Kaiser AE and Van Houtte C (2015). “Vs30 and NZS 1170.5 site class maps of New Zealand”. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand.
Aurecon (2014). “15 Stout Street, New Zealand”. Accessed 2017-03-15.
Cubrinovski M, Bray JD, de la Torre C, Olsen MJ, Bradley BA, Chiaro G, Stocks E and Wotherspoon LM (2017). “Liquefaction effects and associated damages observed at the Wellington CentrePort from the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake”. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 50(2): 152–173.
The Dominion Post (2013). “BNZ Harbour Quays building closed after quake”. URL: http://www.stuff.co.nz/dominionpost/news/wellington/8958879/BNZ-Harbour-Quaysbuilding-closed-after-quake, Accessed 2017-03-11.
Schouten H (2013). “Newer building one of worst hit in quake”. The Dominion Post, URL: http://www.stuff.co.nz/dominion-post/news/8978371/Newerbuilding-one-of-worst-hit-in-quake, Accessed 2017-03-11.
Rutherford H (2016). “BNZ says if staff had followed quake procedure ‘they should have been okay’”. Stuff.co.nz, URL: http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/86757342/bnz-saysif-staff-had-followed-quake-procedure-they-should-havebeen-okay, Accessed 2017-03-11.
Rutherford H and George D (2016). “CentrePort-owned BNZ building, damaged in 2013 quake, appears extensively damaged”. Stuff.co.nz, URL: http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/86428277/centreportowned-bnz-buildingdamaged-in-2013-quake-appears-extensively-damaged,Accessed 2017-03-11.
McBeth P (2016). “BNZ says Wellington office will be closed for months”. The National Business Review, URL: https://www.nbr.co.nz/article/bnz-says-wellingtonoffice-will-be-closed-months-b-196863, Accessed 2017-03-11.
Williams K (2017). “How is Wellington coping 100 days on from the 7.8 magnitude Kaikoura quake?” Stuff.co.nz, URL: http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/nzearthquake/89604340/how-is-wellington-coping-100-days-on-from-the-78-magnitude-kaikoura-quake, Accessed 2017-03-11.
New Zealand Standard (2004). Structural Design Actions Part 5: Earthquake Actions – New Zealand - Commentary. Tech. Rep. AS/NZS 1170.5 Supp 1, Standards New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.
Uma SR, Cousins WJ, Young J and Barker PR (2010). Seismic instrumentation in BNZ Building, Wellington. Tech. Rep. 2010/29, GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand.
Burt GH (1939). “Departmental Building (Defence House), Stout St, Wellington”. Te Papa (C.002640), URL: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/118529, Accessed 2017-03-20.
Haselton CB, Baker JW, Liel AB and Deierlein GG (2011). “Accounting for Ground-Motion Spectral Shape Characteristics in Structural Collapse Assessment through an Adjustment for Epsilon”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 137(3): 332–344, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000103.
Tatham H and Jury R (2016). Level 2 rapid assessment. Tech. Rep. NZ1-6082552-13 1.8, Beca, Wellington, New Zealand.
Holden T (2016). Post Earthquake Preliminary Level 2 Assessment. Tech. Rep. 254425, Aurecon, Wellington, New Zealand.
Boore DM (2005). “On Pads and Filters: Processing Strong-Motion Data”. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 95(2): 745–750, DOI: 10.1785/0120040160.
Boore DM and Bommer JJ (2005). “Processing of strong-motion accelerograms: needs, options and consequences”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 25(2): 93–115, DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2004.10.007.
Naeim F, Lee H, Bhatia H, Hagie S and Skliros K (2005). CSMIP instrumented building response analysis and 3-D visualization system (CSMIP-3DV). Tech. rep., John A. Martin and Associates, Inc., Los Angeles, CA.
Drake RM and Bragagnolo LJ (2000). “Model Code Design Force Provisions for Elements of Structures and Nonstructural Components”. Earthquake Spectra, 16(1): 115–125, DOI: 10.1193/1.1586086.
Rodriguez ME, Restrepo JI and Carr AJ (2002). “Earthquake-induced floor horizontal accelerations in buildings”. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 31(3): 693–718, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.149.
Miranda E and Taghavi S (2005). “Approximate Floor Acceleration Demands in Multistory Buildings. I: Formulation”. Journal of Structural Engineering, 131(2): 203–211, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2005)131:2(203).
Piersol AG and Paez TL (2009). Harris’ Shock and Vibration Handbook. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 6 ed., ISBN 9780071633437.
Brincker R and Ventura CE (2015). Introduction to Operational Modal Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, ISBN 9781118535141, DOI: 10.1002/9781118535141.
Copyright (c) 2017 Reagan Chandramohan, Quincy Ma, Liam M. Wotherspoon, Brendon A. Bradley, Mostafa Nayyerloo, S. R. Uma, Max T. Stephens
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.